Living alongside growing numbers of students can be a nightmare for local residents and universities must take action, a report has urged.
Queen's University in Belfast recently announced a crackdown on student behaviour following complaints of noisy late-night parties, rowdy drunkenness and vandalism.
Six universities - Brighton, Canterbury, Leeds, Loughborough, Salford and Nottingham - were used as case studies for the report.
Each has sought to tackle any potential friction arising from a large, transient population of students living alongside permanent residents.
At Loughborough, matters came to a head in 2002 when the university put in a planning application to extend a hall of residence.
The plan was rejected after local residents objected and later produced a CD of noisy students to highlight the problems they faced.
Alison Barlow, the university's Community Relations Officer, said students must now sign a code of conduct which gives the university the power to take action if they misbehave off-campus.
The university now has two community wardens. These full-time members of university staff give advice to students and also act as a point of contact for residents.
There is also a 24-hour helpline for residents to call.
"Residents can ring this if there's a problem with, for example, a particularly noisy party," said Ms Barlow. "The head of security then has the power to discipline students."
Discipline usually runs to a fine although the university does have the ultimate power to either expel a student or withhold a degree.